This paper compares the ". . . accounts of different conflicts in India and South Asia, it delineates two ideal types of counterinsurgency: 'population-centric' and 'enemy-centric'. While both models are institutionalist in nature - they assume the malleability of the population's preferences - they differ on whether persuasive or coercive institutions are used to mould those civilian attitudes towards the state. The study also explores the effects of mixing the two models and how this generates noisy signals that inhibit cooperation."
Read Challenges in Designing Counterinsurgency Policy: An Institutionalist Perspective, by Kaustav Char Chakrabarti, ORF Occasional Paper #71, September 2015. 50-page paper posted on Observer Research Foundation website. Read more papers about counterinsurgency and about counterinsurgency in Afghanistan.